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Sitagliptin functions by stimulating insulin production and reducing the excessive production of glucose in the liver. It achieves this by prolonging the action of GLP-1 and GIP, which are active incretin hormones. The elevation of these incretin levels by sitagliptin leads to increased insulin production and decreased glucagon secretion from alpha cells. Consequently, this inhibits the liver’s excessive production of glucose, contributing to improved glucose control.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sitagliptin is indicated as a monotherapy to be used alongside diet and exercise for the purpose of enhancing glycemic control in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additionally, it is prescribed in combination with immediate- or extended-release metformin, either as separate medications or in the form of fixed combinations such as Janumet or Janumet XR. This combination therapy is recommended as an adjunct to diet and exercise to further improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when the use of both sitagliptin and metformin is deemed appropriate.